Male genital tuberculosis
Male genital tuberculosis is mostly associated with coexistent renal tuberculosis, arising from retrograde spread of infected urine along the vas deferens.
In order of decreasing frequency, the prostate, epididymis, seminal vesicles and testis may be involved.
The usual presentation is a scrotal mass (initially unilateral but eventually bilateral in about a third of cases) which may be accompanied by draining skin sinuses.
Female genital tuberculosis is not usually linked to kidney disease but begins with a haematogenous focus in the endosalpinx (the inner lining of the fallopian tube).
From there it may spread to the endometrium, peritoneum, ovaries, cervix or vagina.
The usual presentations include infertility, pelvic pain, poor general health and menstrual disturbance.