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References & acknowledgments

Unless otherwise indicated, all clinical photographs are from the UCT surgical pathology collection, all specimens are from the UCT Pathology Learning Centre.

  • Jochelson, K. The Colour of Disease. Syphilis and Racism in South Africa, 1880-1950. Basingstoke; Palgrave Macmillan, 2001 was the primary historical reference
  • Tramont EC. Treponema pallidum (Syphilis) In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R. Editors. Mandell, Douglas and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 7th Edition. PLACE: Churchill Livingstone, 2010
  • Murray JF. Endemic syphilis or yaws? A review of the literature from South Africa. S Afr Med J. 1957; 31:821-4.
  • Du Toit JA. Endemic syphilis in the Karoo. S Afr Med J. 1969;43(13):355-8.
  • Sax S. The introduction of syphilis into the Bantu peoples of South Africa. S Afr Med J. 1952; 26:1037-9.
  • Giacani L, Lukehart SA. The Endemic Treponematoses. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 2014; 27(1):89.
  • Kark SL. The social pathology of syphilis in Africans. International Journal of Epidemiology. 2003;32:181–186 (published here in "Reprints and Reflections". Originally published S Afr Med J, 1949)
  • Jeeves A. Public Health in the Era of South Africa's Syphilis Epidemic of the 1930s and 1940s. South African Historical Journal. 2001; 45:79-102
  • Scott FP, Lups JGH. Endemiese Sifilis. S Afr Med J. 1973; 57: 1437 - 1350
  • Purcell FWF. Syphilis in South Africa. S Afr Med J. 1940;
  • Zetola NM1, Klausner JD. Syphilis and HIV infection: an update. Clin Infect Dis. 2007; 44(9):1222-8.